经典名方中莪术、郁金、姜黄、片姜黄的本草考证
投稿时间:2020-02-10  修订日期:2020-03-19   点此下载全文
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詹志来* ZHAN Zhi-lai 中国中医科学院中药资源中心 道地药材国家重点实验室培育基地 State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs,National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences,Beijing zzlzhongyi@163.com 
中文摘要:莪术、郁金、姜黄、片姜黄四种药材功效相近,基原有交叉,药材名与植物名又有所重叠,因此关系比较混乱。现从释名、基原、产地、药用部位、采收加工及炮制等方面对以上四味药材进行本草考证,为含这类药材的不同历史时期经典名方开发提供参考。经考证可知姜黄、郁金、莪术均从唐代开始入药,唐宋时期同时以原植物性状和药材颜色两种标准划分姜黄属药材,以致明末以前一直以Curcuma longa的根茎为郁金,C. wenyujin或C. aromatica的根茎夹杂老姜Zingiber officinale为药材姜黄,药材莪术主流基原则为蓬莪术Curcuma phaeocaulis、广西莪术C. kwangsiensis、温郁金C. wenyujin的根茎。明清两代转用药材产地及性状来鉴别药材,又因战乱等因素导致交通不便,姜黄和郁金的基原及药用部位发生改变。药材郁金自清起基原转为蓬莪术C. phaeocaulis、广西莪术C. kwangsiensis、温郁金C. wenyujin和姜黄C. longa的块根。药材姜黄清代以后基原转为姜黄C. longa根茎。片姜黄或称片子姜黄,始载于《本草纲目》,基原为温郁金C. wenyujin等的根茎纵切片。药材郁金历代以川产为道地,清代扩大药源更改后逐步发展成川、广(桂)、温三大道地产区;姜黄主生江南,广南诸州及西番亦有,清代基原改变后,也以川产为佳;莪术在两广、江南、蜀川均有分布,历代温州为主流,后发展成著名的道地药材温莪术。经考证得知,民国以前本草郁金、姜黄两味药材未及文献却明确指出三种姜黄属药材均需蒸煮,可能是为了便于干燥,以及经过高温蒸煮后不易蛀虫出发,然与古代有所出入。四味药材多生用,郁金、莪术可醋制以增强疗效。
中文关键词:经典名方  莪术  郁金  姜黄  本草考证
 
Textual research on Curcumae Rhizoma、Curcumae Radix、Curcumae Longae Rhizoma、Wenyujin Rhizoma Concisum in Chinese classical prescriptions
Abstract:Curcuma zedoary, Curcuma, turmeric, Curcuma Curcuma four similar efficacy, based on the original cross, medicine name and plant name overlap, so the relationship is more chaotic. Now from the explanation, the origin, the place of origin, the medicinal parts, the harvesting and processing and processing of the above four herbal medicines for textual research. It can be seen from textual research that turmeric, Yujin and Curcuma have been used as medicine since Tang Dynasty. In the Tang Dynasty, the two standards of original plant character and color were used to divide Curcuma, which led to the confusion of Curcuma and zedoary primordium. Before the end of Ming Dynasty, Curcuma longa's rhizome was used as tulip, C. wenyujin or C. aromatica's rhizome mixed with ginger Zingiber officinale as turmeric. Curcuma phaeocaulis, C. kwangsiensis, C. wenyujin's rhizome were the mainstream of curcuma zedoary. Because of the inconvenient transportation in Ming and Qing Dynasties, the origin and character of the medicinal materials were transferred to identify, and the primordium of turmeric and Yujin also changed. The root tubers of turmeric C. phaeocaulis, Guangxi Curcuma C. kwangsiensis, wenyujin C. wenyujin and turmeric C. longa were transformed from turmeric to turmeric. After the Qing Dynasty, turmeric became C. longa rhizome. Curcuma longa, or Curcuma longa, was first recorded in compendium of Materia Medica. At that time, it may have been the lateral rhizome of wenyujin. Yujin, the traditional Chinese medicine, has always been based on Sichuan production. In the Qing Dynasty, it gradually developed into the real estate area of Sichuan, Guanggui and Wensan avenue after the change of drug sources. Turmeric mainly grows in the south of the Yangtze River, as well as in the cantons and western regions. In the Qing Dynasty, it was also based on Sichuan production after the change of basic resources. Curcuma has been distributed in Guangdong, Jiangnan and Shuchuan, with Wenzhou as the mainstream in previous dynasties, and then developed into the famous genuine medicine wenzedoary. Through textual research, we know that before the Republic of China, the two herbs of Curcuma and turmeric had not mentioned the need to boil to the heart, only Curcuma had to be steamed to appear dark and enter the blood. However, the works and documents after the liberation clearly pointed out that the three kinds of curcuma herbs need to be boiled. I don't know the principle. It may be for the convenience of drying, and it is not easy to get moths after high-temperature cooking, but it is different from ancient times. Four kinds of herbs can be used in many ways. Curcuma and Curcuma can be made with vinegar to enhance the curative effect.
keywords:Chinese classical prescriptions  Curcumae Rhizoma  CurcumaeRadix  Curcumae Longae Rhizoma  Textual research on materiamedica
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